State models of the components are important for state-based regression testing of component-based applications. Most of the COTS-components are black box in nature because of source code unavailability, which makes the testing process difficult in development leading to greater testing time and higher cost.
Bouquet  defined the subset of UML and OCL expressions for model-based testing purpose, which is based on class, object and state-machines. Litian extended agent oriented methods to develop individual testing system to test subject system, but the disadvantage is additional overhead of managing the testing system itself.
Using the test case prioritization technique, we can reduce the cost and time of testing. Case study is provided to evaluate effectiveness of techniques.
Pasareanu  advanced the model based analysis and test generation strategies using UML for heterogeneous systems such as flight software to produce common intermediate representation for flight-software module produced using different modelling environments.
The real power Test case prioritization for black box CB methods comes from the reusability of software component. The factors I am using are criticality of component and fault proneness of component.
State coverage and transition coverage are two popular State-based testing techniques. In addition, Test case prioritization for black box constant feedback, encouragement, guidance and support at every phase of writing this thesis from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an in-depth understanding of the research area.
Most of the test case prioritization techniques proposed in previous works applies source code information as prioritization factors because those are based on OOT technology. Section 6 presents the proposed technique for test case prioritization in component based black box testing.
Section 4 describes the various complexity metrics for component based system and makes comparison between them. Focusing on all above examples, component based techniques most suites the problem characterization, where the completeness of integration is most important.
When using in the special cases such as embedded real-time systems or component based systems ,which has special problem space and development requirements the limits of OO technique come in to focus and developer has to work keeping in the mind the limitations of Object oriented techniques. There are also techniques based on historical test case performance data, and coverage of interaction.
Most of the COTS components are black box or glass-box in nature. Answer is to prioritize the test cases so, which are more important run earlier in test process. All above techniques are applicable to OO systems and, there is a lack of work on component based testing and test case prioritization techniques.
Again, the Object oriented technique is by nature white box, source code availability allows us to test how object interacts with one another. At last, section 8 presents the conclusion and future work.
The driver uses a data-driven approach in Figure 1b to interact with the rest of the application software, as opposed to the more traditional OO process driven approach shown in Figure 1a.
In black box reuse, the reuse sees the interface, not the implementation of the component. The root principals of the OO techniques are incorporating states and behaviour of the subject system.
System integrator has not any knowledge of logic or, implementation of component, making impossible to white-box test the component. When, system integrator integrates the system combining number of components, the focus of testing is the required functionality supposed to provide by the component.
In glass box reuse, the inside of the box can be seen as well as the outside, but it is not possible to touch the inside. We can build the system by combining the components from different venders at reduced cost and time.
Opposite to OO-techniques, which are white box in nature, COTS components are black box in nature due to unavailability of source code, resulting in complexity of testing, verification and validation. Selection of approach to test the component depends on various factors and assumptions.
Due to unavailability of source code, the white box testing of COTS —component is nearly impossible that is why developer has to depend on functional black box testing. Statements, functions, classes, relations, implementation logic are the most focused points when testing the OO-Systems.
As the dependency of component is higher, the component is more prone to fault. Based on this finding, we can evolute any other component based integration testing technique, which are not invented yet. Method of Black box testing is most promising approach when testing the CB-Systems in such environment.
Many techniques were proposed in OO domain to prioritize the test cases for regression testing. Based on the aim of testing, the prioritization factors are selected and test cases are sort out using those factors.
Here, this paper proposes a test case prioritization technique in component environment. Contrast CB systems, which relays on functionality of the component, making the component as black box. Another Model based component regression testing method is proposed by Lalchandani  which covers dynamic slicing algorithm to discover the bugs in the architecture models produced over design time by converting them to Architecture Component Dependence Graph ACDG.
Component can be a class, object, module or subsystem, which functions independently irrespective of the other component of the system, easing the development process of large complex software. The CB system development has become more difficult because of the increasing complexity, reduced development time and reduced budgets.Test case prioritization is an effective and practical technique that helps to increase the rate of regression fault detection when software evolves.
Numerous techniques have been reported in the literature on prioritizing test cases for regression testing. Requirements-Based Test Case Prioritization Hema Srikanth Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, NC [email protected] "Requirement-Based Automated Black-Box Test Generation," 25th Annual Int'l Computer Software and Applications Conference, Chicago, Illinois, Test case prioritization is an effective and practical technique that helps to increase the rate of regression fault detection when software evolves.
Abstract: Test case prioritization is an effective and practical technique that helps to increase the rate of regression fault detection when software evolves.
Numerous techniques have been reported in the literature on prioritizing test cases for regression testing. However, existing prioritization. Test case prioritization techniques proved important to reduce test case cost and to improve reliability. Most of the prioritization techniques have goal of improving the rate of fault detection in testing process.
BLACK BOX WARNINGS Introduction: A "black box" warning is the most serious warning in prescription drug labeling. The manufacturers of certain antidepressants have already changed the product labeling to warn about a possible increased risk of suicidality with these drugs.Download