An industry with a four-firm concentration ratio of forty percent is generally considered to be competitive. The differentiation could be in the form of location, taste, packaging, design, quality and many other factors.
Concentration may be expressed in a number of ways. Firms can be more efficient than markets due to: Auto manufacturers are actually assemblers of cars - most the parts in a car are produced by hundreds of component suppliers. In Measures of concentration the reactions of certain solutions in combination, for example the neutralization neutralization, chemical reaction, Measures of concentration to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the resulting solution has neither acidic nor basic Price-Searcher Markets Price-searcher markets are characterized by: The single seller will have a market with no well-defined substitute.
Suppose we were looking at concentration within the shoe industry. Instead, phase separation will occur, leading to coexisting phases, either completely separated or mixed as a suspension. By contrast, to dilute a solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.
Instead, the concentration of an ionic compound in solution may be given by its formality, the number of gram-formula weights of the compound per liter of solution; e. For example, if Valvoline raises the price of its motor oil, some people will be willing to pay the price for the motor oil they prefer.
The concentration of a solute is very important in studying chemical reactions because it determines how often molecules collide in solution and thus indirectly determines the rates of reactions and the conditions at equilibrium see chemical equilibrium chemical equilibrium, state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system.
The unit of equivalent weight is the atomic mass unit; the amount of a substance in grams numerically equal to the Related to Concentration measurements: The molality of a solution is the number of moles of solute per 1, grams of solvent; a solution prepared by dissolving At this point, the solution is said to be saturated.
A good example would be a gas station. To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute for example, alcoholor reduce the amount of solvent for example, water.
If the concentration is high, then the industry will be viewed as oligopolistic or monopolistic. A solution is distinct from a colloid or a suspension.
For example, when hydrogen gas, H2, and iodine gas, I In the study of solutions, the concepts of molarity the number of moles of solute per 1 l of solvent and molality the number of moles of solute per 1, grams of solvent are often used.
The monopolist does not need to worry about the reactions of other firms. In practice, concentration is determined using both the standard methods of quantitative analysis and certain instrumental methods, which make it possible to perform rapid and sufficiently accurate calculations of the content of the main component for example, determination of the concentration of aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, salts, and ethyl alcohol by measuring density with the aid of a hydrometer.
If concentration is low, then the industry is considered to be competitive. Utility companies are often monopolists in particular markets. The solutions on the left are more dilute, compared to the more concentrated solutions on the right.
Firms in a price-searcher market with low barriers to entry have some flexibility to raise prices, as they will not lose all their customers if they do so.
Mixtures of solids or liquids are frequently specified by weight percentage concentrations, such as alloys of metals or mixtures used in cooking, whereas mixtures of gases are usually specified by volume percentages.
Because sellers must take the current market price, a purely competitive market also is called a "price takers" market. Some of these define the concentration of the solute in reference to the amount of solvent, others in reference to the total amount of solution.
Qualitative description[ edit ] These glasses containing red dye demonstrate qualitative changes in concentration. Many highly-concentrated industries metals, airlines, et al are constrained by the availability and cost of substitute products and services.
Some textbooks use the phrase " monopolistic competition " to describe markets where each firm has something unique about its product while facing significant competition. The simplest statement of the concentrations of the components of a mixture is in terms of their percentages by weight or volume.
The concentration of liquid systems is often expressed by the weight of the substance dissolved in g sometimes in 1 l of solvent or by the number of moles of substance per 1, moles of solvent.to which measures of concentration will be put and thus help to develop the most satisfactory measure.
I shall concentrate on this latter relation, and try to give a de-tailed statement of the various effects that the theorist would expect concentration to have.
Also, I shall use this opportunity to make a. Measures of Concentration: Molarity.
STUDY. PLAY. A laboratory technician wants to prepare a NaOH solution for use in an experiment to completely react it with mL of M H2SO4. The volume of NaOH must equal that of H2SO4. The equation for the reaction is given below.
concentration, in chemistry, measure of the relative proportions of two or more quantities in a mixture mixture, in chemistry, a physical combination of two or more pure substances (i.e., elements or compounds). The most common measure of concentration is the four-firm concentration ratio, which is defined as the percentage of the industry's output sold by the four largest firms.
An industry with a four-firm concentration ratio of forty percent is. MEASURES OF CONCENTRATION It is not difficult for any imaginative investigator to develop a great many indexes to measure concentration in the general sense defined above. Our discussion will, however, be confined to measures that have actually been put to use in analyses of substantial bodies of statistical data.
Measures of Concentration: Molarity Quiz. STUDY. PLAY. Josh prepares a solution by mixing sodium nitrate and water. To calculate the molarity of the solution, Josh should calculate the moles of which substance, and why? B. .Download